By: The National Academy of Science
In the beginning of letter it must be said that genetics is most advanced and undeniable source for the ethnic research It is the most precise science. I red all the genetic studies of Jews conducted in the last two decades however I just used here well known sources available on line. I am a medical doctor and I tried to use just sources which are using understandable language for people not involved in medical and genetic science
First today there are about 13.200.000 Jews around globe.
8.500.000 are Askenazi Jews while the rest is considered Mizrachi (eastern Jews ) and Sepharadic Jews.While they are majority of Jewish population in Diaspora they are a minority of Jewish population in Israel.where the Mizrachi and Sepharadi Jews are dominant.
While Khazars mythologists and anti-Semites were not able to spread their theories to non Askhenazi Jews and to deny their Israelite origin the genetic research mentioned below are focused on Ashkenazi Jews.
1) Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis began in the 1990s. Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, these studies have focused on two segments of the human genome, the Y chromosome (inherited only by males), and the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA, DNA which passes from mother to child). Both segments are unaffected by recombination. Thus, they provide an indicator of paternal and maternal origins, respectively.
2) A study of haplotypes of the Y chromosome, published in 2000, addressed the paternal origins of Ashkenazi Jews. Hammer et al. found that the Y chromosome of some Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews contained mutations that are also common among Middle Eastern peoples, but uncommon in the general European population. This suggested that the male ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews could be traced to the Middle East. The proportion of male genetic admixture in Ashkenazi Jews amounts to less than 0.5% per generation over an estimated 80 generations, with "minor contribution of European Y chromosomes to the Ashkenazim,"
3) A 2005 study by Nebel et al., based on Y chromosome polymorphic markers, showed that Ashkenazi Jews are more closely related to other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than to their host populations in Europe.Nebel concluded that jewish genetics is way much uniform and that the level of non Israelite contribution to Jews is extremely low in comparation to other nation and their non indigenous genetic makeup
Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, Ariella Oppenheim.
"The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East
Wade, Nicholas (January 14 2006)
more recent studies point to a significant female founder ancestry deriving from the Middle East. A 2006 study by Behar et based on high-resolution analysis of haplogroup K(mtDNA), suggested that the current Ashkenazi population is descended matrilineally from just four women, or "founder lineages", that were "likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Near East in the first and second centuries CE.
Although Haplogroup K is common throughout western Eurasia, "the observed global pattern of distribution renders very unlikely the possibility that the four aforementioned founder lineages entered the Ashkenazi mtDNA pool via gene flow from a European host population."
4) In addition, Behar et al. have suggested that the rest of Ashkenazi mtDNA is originated from 150 women, most of those were probably of Middle Eastern origin.
Behar, M.; Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Lluı's Quintana-Murci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt, Neil Howell, Oleg Balanovsky, Ildus Kutuev, Andrey Pshenichnov, , Batsheva Bonne-Tamir, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" . The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 : 48797. doi:10.1086/500307. PMID 16404693.
http://www.ftdna.com/pdf/43026_Doron.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-30
Using complete sequences of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we show that close to one-half of Ashkenazi Jews, estimated at 8,000,000 people, can be traced back to only four women carrying distinct mtDNAs that are virtually absent in other populations, with the important exception of non Ashkenazi jews We conclude that four founding mtDNAs, Near Eastern ancestry, and can be described as a sovely Israelite mtDNA.
This mt DNA was not found in any non Jewish or Semitic people searched (Palestinians, Turks, Kurds, Slavs and others)
Wade, Nicholas (January 14 2006)
Behar, M.; Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Lluı's Quintana-Murci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt
Jewish populations which have both cultural and physical uniformity, genetic studies have demonstrated most of these to be genetically related to one another, having ultimately originated from a common ancient Israelite population that underwent geographic branching and subsequent independent evolutions.
A study published by the National Academy of Sciences found that "the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", and suggested that Jewish communities have remained isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora Researchers expressed surprise at the remarkable genetic uniformity they found among modern Jews, no matter where the diaspora has become dispersed around the world.[
Hammer, M. F.; A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir (May 9 2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome bi-allelic haplotypes".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 6769. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997.
Moreover, DNA tests have demonstrated substantially less inter-marriage in most of the various Jewish ethnic divisions over the last 3,000 years than in other populations.
Even the archetype of Israelite-origin is also beginning to be reviewed for some Jewish populations amid newer studies. Previously, the Israelite origin identified in the world's Jewish populations was attributed only to the males who had migrated from the Middle East and then forged the current known communities with "the women from each local population whom they took as wives and converted to Judaism".
Research in Ashkenazi Jews has suggested that, in addition to the male founders, significant female founder ancestry also derive from the Middle East, with the current Ashkenazi population descended matrimonially from just four women, or "founder lineages", that were "likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Near East in the first and second centuries CE
Wade, Nicholas (January 14 2006). "New Light on Origins of Ashkenazi in Europe". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/14/science/14gene.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
DNA analysis further determined that modern Jews of the priesthood tribe — "Kohanim" — share a common ancestor dating back about 3,000 years.
This result is consistent for all Jewish populations around the world. The researchers estimated that the most recent common ancestor of modern Kohanim lived between 1000 BCE (roughly the time of the Biblical Exodus) and 586 BCE, when the Babylonians destroyed the First Temple. They found similar results analyzing DNA from Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews. The scientists estimated the date of the original priest based on genetic mutations, which indicated that the priest lived roughly 106 generations ago, between 2,650 and 3,180 years ago depending whether one counts a generation as 25 or 30 years,,
This mutations in DNA is used now-days as exclusive Israelite base for comperation with other ethnic groups.
• Karl Skorecki, Sara Selig, Shraga Blazer, Bruce Rappaport, Robert Bradman, Neil Bradman, P.J. Waburton, Monic Ismajlowicz (January 2 1997). "Y Chromosomes of Jewish Priests" ([dead link] Scholar search).
NATURE, Volume 385. http://www.familytreedna.com/nature97385.html
.• ^ a b c "Priestly Gene Shared By Widely Dispersed Jews". American Society for Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. July
The main ethnic element of Ashkenazim (German and Eastern European Jews), Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), Mizrahim (Middle Eastern Jews), Juhurim (Mountain Jews of the Caucasus), Italqim (Italian Jews), and most other modern Jewish populations of the world is Israelite. The Israelite haplotypes fall into Y-DNA haplogroups J and E.
The National Academy of Science
non Israelite contribution to askhenazi jews.
There is no jewish race. Showing all the unbeatebale evidence of Israelite Ashkenazi and sepharadic which had less intermarriage than most of other europen nations we must also stress that there is a wey small but existing non jewish contribution in nowdays Ashkenazim Hamer pointed out that it can be about 12% of jenetic pole of askhenazim and about 2% of other Jews Nebel belived that this procentage is about 8,7% while other scientists agree about 12,5% of askenazi jews and abot 7,9-8,2% of owerall jewish population
The proportion of male indigenous European genetic admixture in Ashkenazi Jews amounts to around 0.5% per generation over an estimated 80 generations, and a total admixture estimate "very similar to Motulsky's average estimate of 12.5%."
Hammer, M. F.; A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir (May 9 2000).
"Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 6769. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997.
Just to be clear THIS PROCENTAGE IS EXTREMLY LOW in comparation with other nations/
However it must be said that the ashkenazi levytes have many non jewish genes.Interestingly most of this genes were usally contributed to slavs while the turcik people have little in common with jewish genetics
Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people who dominated the Pontiac steppe and the North Caucasus from the 7th to the 10th century CE. The name 'Khazar' seems to be tied to a Turkic verb form meaning "wandering".
In the 7th century CE, the Khazars founded an independent Khaganate in the Northern Caucasus along the Caspian Sea.
Jewish communities had existed in the Greek cities of the Black Sea coast since late classical times. Chersonesos, Sudak, Kerch and other Crimean cities possessed Jewish communities, as did Gorgippia, and Samkarsh / Tmutarakan was said to have had a Jewish majority as early as the 670s. Jews fled from Byzantium to Khazaria as a consequence of persecution under Heraclius, Justinian II, Leo III, and Romanos I.
These were joined by other Jews fleeing from Sassanid Persia (particularly during the Mazdak revolts) and, later, the Islamic world. Jewish merchants such as the Radhanites regularly traded in Khazar territory, and may have wielded significant economic and political influence. Though their origins and history are somewhat unclear, the Mountain Jews also lived in or near Khazar territory and may have been allied with or subject to Khazar over-lordship; it is conceivable that they too played a role in the conversion.
At some point in the last decades of the 8th century or the early 9th century, the Khazar royalty and nobility converted to Judaism, and part of the general population followed. The theory that the majority of Ashkenazic Jews are the descendants of the non-Semitic converted Khazars was advocated by various racial theorists and antisemitic sources in the 20th century,.
Despite recent genetic evidence to the contrary, and a lack of any real mainstream scholarly support, this belief is still popular among groups such as the Christian Identity Movement, Black Hebrews, British Israelitists and others (particularly Arabs) It was first publicly proposed in lecture given by Ernest Renan on January 27, 1883, titled "Judaism as a Race and as Religion." It was repeated in articles in The Dearborn Independent in 1923 and 1925, and popularized by racial theorist Lothrop Stoddard in a 1926
Even if most of Khazars were converted (as they didn’t) to Judaism they were attribute to less than 12% to Ashkenazi Jews. There were about 3.000.000 Jews in 8th century.
The main ethnic element of Ashkenazim (German and Eastern European Jews), Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), Mizrakhim (Middle Eastern Jews), Juhurim (Mountain Jews of the Caucasus), Italqim (Italian Jews), and most other modern Jewish populations of the world is Israelite. The Israelite haplotypes fall into Y-DNA haplogroups J and E.
Ashkenazim also descend, in a VERY small way, from European peoples such as Slavs and Khazars. The non-Israelite Y-DNA haplogroups include Q PROBABLY Khazar (2,5%) and R1a1 (typically Eastern European Slavic 10%).
THE ISRAELITE ORIGIN OF ASKHENAZI JEWS IS 87,5% AND MIZRACHI JEWS
(ALMOST TOTALLY) is one of the highest percentage of genetic uniformity and ancestors genes hereditament among any nation worldwide.
Knowing the makeup of Israeli population (Mizrachi majority and Askhenazi pop. we can say that Israeli Jews are absolutely Israelites today.
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